SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

vol.23 issue3Perception of knowledge regarding fertility preservation in the portuguese general populationMaternal sense of coherence and oral health behaviors of preschool children author indexsubject indexarticles search
Home Pagealphabetic serial listing  

Services on Demand




Related links

  • Have no similar articlesSimilars in SciELO


Psicologia, Saúde & Doenças

Print version ISSN 1645-0086

Psic., Saúde & Doenças vol.23 no.3 Lisboa Dec. 2022  Epub Dec 31, 2022 


Development and validation of the appearance beliefs scale in middle-age

Desenvolvimento e validação da escala de crenças sobre a aparência na meia-idade

1 William James Center for Research, Ispa - Instituto Universitário, Lisboa, Portugal,,,,,

2 Ispa - Instituto Universitário, Lisboa, Portugal,


This study aimed to develop and validate the Appearance Beliefs Scale (ABS), a short eight-item measure with a sample of 530 middle-aged Portuguese adults aged between 40 and 59 years old. The construct validity was assessed through Confirmatory Factorial Analysis. Reliability, criterion-related validity, sensitivity, as well as measurement invariance were also explored. The analysis indicated a first-order hierarchical structure with two first-order factors: importance attributed to appearance and satisfaction with appearance. The Appearance Beliefs Scale showed evidence of high reliability, sensitivity, as well as factorial, convergent and criterion validity, enabling a sex-based comparison in research with middle-aged participants. Future studies exploring psychometrics properties with a larger sample size are needed, including adults from young and late adulthood. Comparisons between these different developmental stages could provide pertinent information about generational differences in appearance-related beliefs.

Keywords: Appearance Beliefs Scale; Assessment; Men; Women; Middle-aged


Este estudo teve como objetivo desenvolver e validar a Escala de Crenças sobre a Aparência, um instrumento breve de oito itens com uma amostra de 530 adultos portugueses de meia-idade com idades compreendidas entre os 40 e os 59 anos. A validade de construto foi avaliada através de uma Análise Fatorial Confirmatória. A fiabilidade, validade de critério, sensibilidade, assim como invariância de medida, também foram exploradas. A análise indicou uma estrutura hierárquica de primeira ordem com dois fatores: importância atribuída à aparência e satisfação com a aparência. A presente escala apresentou evidências de fiabilidade, sensibilidade, assim como validade fatorial, convergente e de critério, permitindo comparações entre sexos em estudos com participantes de meia-idade. Estudos futuros explorando propriedades psicométricas com uma amostra de maior dimensão são necessários, incluindo adultos jovens e adultos. As comparações entre diferentes estágios de desenvolvimento podem fornecer informações pertinentes sobre as diferenças geracionais nas crenças relacionadas com a aparência.

Palavras-chave: Escala de Crenças sobre a Aparência; Avaliação; Homens; Mulheres; Meia-idade

Body image is a multidimensional psychological construct that refers to people's perceptions and attitudes about their own body and appearance (Cash, 2004, 2011, 2012; Cash & Pruzinsky, 1990, 2002; Thompson et al., 1999). According to Cash (1994, 2002a, 2002b, 2004), body-related perceptions are associated with an evaluative process that includes a self-ideal discrepancy that leads to (dis)satisfaction concerning one's own body or appearance. Attitudes, in turn, are related to the cognitive-behavioural salience of one's appearance or the importance and investment that people will ascribe to their appearance (Cash et al., 2004).

In the past, the research on body image has been centred on body dissatisfaction and concerns with weight, shape and appearance (e.g., Gardner et al., 2009; Stice et al., 2011; Thompson et al., 1995; Stevens et al., 2016) and associated pathology, such as eating disorders (Cruz-Sáez, Pascual et al., Wilson, 2006). In contrast, recent studies have targeted body satisfaction (Becker et al., 2017; Tiggemann & McCourt, 2013; Tylka & Wood-Barcalow, 2015) and health-related behaviours and benefits (Andrew et al., 2014; Larson et al., 2012).

Body dissatisfaction has been more extensively studied in adolescent girls and women (Bailey et al., 2016; Fiske et al., 2014; Mond et al., 2013). However, more recently, the research in the field has been focusing on men and women, which enabled us to identify at the same time similarities and differences.

The similarities found suggested that men might be as vulnerable to body image disturbances and dysfunctional behaviours such as severe dieting and exercise as are women (Cafri et al., 2005; Malik et al., 2019; Parent et al., 2016). Additionally, although there is a social pressure to achieve esthetical social standards for both sexes, the standards are different: women desire to decrease and become smaller, and men desire to increase (muscular mass) and become stronger (McCabe & Ricciardelli, 2001a; McCabe et al., 2002; Stanford & McCabe, 2005). Past body image studies with adults have predominantly focused on young adults, namely college students, and research with older adults is still reduced (Grogan, 2011).

Measurement of Body Image and Appearance

Concerning the measurement of body image and appearance constructs, few instruments were found. Most instruments were developed to measure individual physical appearance (e.g., Physical Appearance Perfectionism scale - PAPS, Yang & Stoeber, 2012; Genital Appearance Satisfaction Scale, Bramwell & Morland, 2009; Muscle Appearance Satisfaction Scale - MASS (Mayville et al., 2002); Physical Appearance State and Trait Anxiety Scale - PASTAS (Reed et al., 1991; Satisfaction with Appearance Scale - SWAP, Lawrence et al., 1998), or physical appearance in a social context (e.g., Sociocultural attitudes towards appearance questionnaire - SATAQ (Heinberg et al, 1995; Physical Appearance Related Teasing Scale - PARTS (Thompson et al., 1991; Verbal Commentary on Physical Appearance scale - VCOPAS (Herbozo & Thompson, 2006) or both (e.g., Social Appearance Anxiety Scale - SAAS, Hart et al., 2008). Most of these measures are specifically related to physical appearance and used with young adults.

Few instruments oriented to a much broader conceptualization of appearance were found. The Beliefs About Appearan4ce Scale (BAAS: Spangler & Stice, 2001) was designed to measure dysfunctional attitudes about bodily appearance and determine the intensity of body image awareness (including interpersonal interactions, personal achievement, self-perception, and emotions). This scale, composed of 20 items, was validated for both men and women and for a young population, including adolescents, college students and young adults. Later, a study with middle-aged women was also performed (Liechty et al., 2006).

The Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire-Appearance Scales (MBSRQ-AS; Brown et al., 1990; Cash, 2000), comprising 34 items organised in five sub-scales (appearance evaluation, appearance orientation, overweight preoccupation, self-classified weight, and body areas satisfaction scale). It was validated with college students (under 30 years) of both sexes.

The 20-item Appearance Schemas Inventory-Revised (ASI-R: Cash et al., 2004) assesses two schematic investment facets on appearance: Self-Evaluative Salience and Motivational Salience. It was validated with a college student sample of both sexes.

The three measures were mainly validated with college-aged samples. Only one study has focused the appearance construct on a middle-aged population (namely, BAAS, which has a clinical purpose).

In the present study, we intended to develop a scale that aims to overcome specific gaps in the literature. Thus, it was developed and tested with a middle-aged sample composed of both men and women. It looks to assess general appearance, not the specificity of the ageing process since the adequacy for both sexes was also a concern (that is, considering the dissimilarities of the ageing process between sexes, this scale is intended to be wide enough to be valid for both men and women). Therefore, this study aims to develop and validate the Appearance Beliefs Scale, an instrument designed to assess beliefs regarding appearance valid for both middle-aged women and men.



This study included 530 adult participants (233 men and 297 women) from 20 Continental Portugal and Islands districts. The inclusion criterion for this study was that the participants' age ranged between 40 and 59 years old. For men, the mean age was 48,94 (SD=5.35), and for women was 48.66 (SD=5.48). Table 1 presents the sociodemographic characteristics of the sample.


Participants were asked to complete a sociodemographic questionnaire, including age, sex, and two psychological measures.

Beliefs about Appearance. The Appearance Beliefs Scale (ABS) presented 12 items (e.g., "My image is an important part of who I am"), which were generated based on 1) pre-existing instruments, 2) a literature review in the field, and 3) a panel of three experts in the field of psychometrics and body-related constructs. The measure asks participants to rate their level of agreement with each statement on a 5-point Likert-type scale (ranging from 1 - totally disagree to 5 - totally agree).

Body Image. The Body Image and Body Change Inventory (Ricciardelli & McCabe, 2002) has several sub-scales; however, the present study only used the following dimensions:(1) body image importance (e.g.," It is much easier to manage my daily tasks when I feel good about the way I look."; and (2) body image satisfaction (e.g., "I am satisfied with the way I look".) Responses were given in a 5-point Likert-type scale, with scores ranging from "extremely important" to "not important at all" in the importance dimension, and from "extremely unsatisfied" to "extremely satisfied" in the satisfaction dimension.

Table 1 Sociodemographic characteristics of the sample 


Both online and paper versions of the questionnaire were assembled. The online version was disseminated through the research team contacts and social media networks (e.g., Facebook, blogs directed to the middle-aged population). The paper version was also distributed in schools and universities (the questionnaires and informed consents were given to students in envelopes to be filled, sealed by their family members, and afterwards returned to the research team). The questionnaires were also distributed in local councils, activities centres and private companies.

This study was part of a larger research (EVISA - Experiências de Vida I Saúde na Adultícia / Health and Life Experiences in Adulthood).

All procedures followed the ethical standards stated by the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards (APA, 2013; OPP, 2011). The study's aims were explained in the informed consent form, which emphasised that participation in the research was voluntary and that participants could interrupt their collaboration at any time without justification or consequences.

Data Analysis

Sensitivity was explored through the analysis of minimum and maximum values, skewness, and kurtosis. Values are expected to range through the overall Likert-type scales (from the minimum to the maximum scores), and skewness and kurtosis are expected to have absolute values below three and seven, respectively, assuring that they would not compromise CFA results (Kline, 2015; Marôco, 2014).

It was conducted a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to assess the ABS construct validity. Descriptive analysis and CFA were conducted with IBM SPSS Statistics, version 26 and IBM SPSS AMOS (v.26). The quality of the fit model was evaluated using the Comparative Fit Index (CFI; Bentler, 1990), the Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA; Steiger, 1998), Tucker-Lewis Index (TLI) and Standardised Root Mean Square Residual (SMRM) (Marôco, 2014). For reference, values above .90 on the CFI and below .10 on the RMSEA indicate an acceptable model fit (Hair et al., 2006).

Criterion validity was explored through concurrent-oriented validity of scales, using Pearson's correlation with similar constructs, namely with the Body Image and Body Change Inventory.

The convergent validity of the ABS was analysed through the average variance extracted (AVE). The constructs' convergent validity evidence was assumed for values of AVE > 0.5 (Marôco, 2014). Discriminant validity was explored by comparing the inter-factor´s squared correlation (r2) with the AVE of each individual factor. Reliability was evaluated using composite reliability (CR). Values of CR ≥ 0.70 indicate adequate reliability (Chin, 1998; Fornell & Larcker, 1981; Hair et al., 2005).

Additionally, a multi-group confirmatory factor analysis (MGCFA) was performed at the best model to test for model invariance of the ABS between sex and age groups (40-49 years old and 50-59 years old).



To address sensitivity, the items response range was explored; all items presented answers at all points of the scale (from the minimum to the maximum value). Table 2 presents means, standard deviation, skewness, and kurtosis. No substantial deviations from the normal distribution were considered for absolute values of Ku smaller than seven and Sk smaller than three.

Construct validity

Factorial validity

Confirmatory Factor Analysis indicated a first-order hierarchical structure with two first-order factors: Importance attributed to appearance and Satisfaction with appearance. All items presented both good factor weights (≥.50), except for item (λ = .46, R 2 =.22). The quality of the model was good (CFI=.940; TLI=.917; RMSEA =.075; SRMR=.059).

Table 3 shows the first-order CFA final model fit (without items 6, 7, 8) and the factor loading and the MGCFA for sex groups and age groups. The final model is shown in figure 1 (the measurement model did not need any additional adjustment).

Table 2 Descriptive statistic for Appearance Beliefs Scale 

Table 3 Is First order CFA models (without items 6,7, and 8), Multi-Group CFA and Factor Loadings 

Note. CFA=Confirmatory Factor Analysis; MGC=Multi-group comparison; Sat = Satisfaction subscale; Imp=Importance subscale. MW= Measurement weights; MI= Measurement intercepts; SC=Structural Covariances

Figure 1 First-order Confirmatory Factor Analysis 

The Satisfaction with Appearance factor and Importance attributed to Appearance factor presented adequate AVE scores (i.e., ≥.50, according to Fornell & Larcker, 1981), indicating convergent validity. Discriminant validity was also verified in both factors since the AVE scores were both higher than the squared correlation between factors (r 2=.102) (Fornell & Larcker, 1981).

Both factors presented high Composite Reliability scores (i.e., ≥ .70, Chin, 1998; Fornell & Larcker, 1981; Hair et al., 2005), indicating good internal consistency (Table 4).

Table 4 Factors AVE, r2 and Composite Reliability 

Criterion Validity

Concurrent Validity

The association among all items was positive and significant, as expected (see Table 5).

Table 5 Pearson Correlation between items from Body Image and Body Change Inventory and Appearance Beliefs Scale, n=529 

Invariance Analysis

The constrained measurement model with factorial weights (l) and intercepts (i) between age groups both did not present a significantly worse adjustment than the unconstrained measurement model (Δχ2λ(7)=5.751, p=.569; Δχ2i(9)=8.707, p=.465; however, this did not occur within sex groups (Δχ2λ(7)=21.239, p=.003; Δχ2i(9)=49.689, p<.001; Δχ2cov(3)=12.303, p=.006). Table 3 shows the models fit and factor loading for both sex and age comparisons.


The goal of this study was to develop and validate a measure of Appearance - The Appearance Beliefs Scale (ABS). Items 6 ("If I could, I would like to change some parts of my body"), 7 ("I get ready quickly before leaving home") and 8 ("Aging will make me less attractive") showed very low factorial weights in either dimension. Confirmatory Factor Analysis indicated a first-order structure with two first-order factors: Importance attributed to Appearance and Satisfaction with Appearance. This first-order structure presented good fit indices. The dimensions Importance attributed to Appearance and Satisfaction with Appearance met the literature since, according to Cash (1994, 2002a, 2002b, 2004), satisfaction is essential to the evaluative perception's process, and the importance is related to the investment that people will ascribe to their own appearance in the attitudinal process.

The two-dimension factorial structure was confirmed in the total sample, as well as in the subsamples. The invariance analysis (MGCFA) was performed to verify the stability of both sex and age groups. Model invariance was not confirmed between men and women. However, this difference between sex groups was not unexpected (Untas et al., 2009). According to Cash et al. (2004), this difference is likely due to a culturally demanding female beauty/body ideal systematically emphasised by the media.

On the one hand, media conveys that achievement of the ideal body is an expression of women's value related to happiness, love, and social status. On the other hand, the pressure on men is more diversified, exploring men's value, not only associated with a fit body, but also with wealth and intelligence expressions (Tiggemann, 2002). Moreover, literature documents that men and women have a different conceptualization of the appearance construct. Women's ideal body is thinner, while men's ideal is muscular (Andersen et al., 2000; Cafri et al., 2004; Vartanian et al., 2001). To this ideal male body, both penis size and height (American Psychiatric Association, 1994; Costa et al., 2016; Tiggemann et al., 2008) are also perceived as relevant for the physical attractiveness construct (McCreary et al., 2004). In contrast, the female body ideal is focused on signifiers of "sexiness" in the body shape, a consequence of the objectification of women, so large breasts, long legs, long hair, thin waist, and rounded buttocks are perceived as relevant for physical attractiveness in women (Murnen, 2011). Despite the different construct representations, the measurement model was confirmed fit for both sexes, meaning that the Appearance Beliefs Scale presents items that women and men can answer.

In contrast, model invariance was verified between age groups, which indicates that the scale is stable across mid-age stages. The ABS was developed to be sensitive to middle-aged individuals' experiences, during which several hormonal, body changes and ageing-related consequences might be felt. Since the changes and consequences associated with mid-life differ not only between sexes but also between individuals (Charles et al., 2001), the ABS intended to access not the specific middle-age changes but the body-appearance satisfaction and importance. Moreover, this short measure appears to be valid for both women and men across this life cycle stage and suitable to access beliefs regarding appearance in different contexts.

Correlation analyses were conducted to determine the degree of association of the Appearance Beliefs Scale with the theoretically related measure, Body Image and Body Change Inventory, precisely two dimensions that also assess satisfaction with and importance of body appearance. The association between both Satisfaction and Importance items of the two instruments (Appearance Beliefs Scale and Body Image and Body Change Inventory) were positive and significant, as expected. However, the positive and significant association presented between both Importance dimensions was generally weak. Therefore, both sub-constructs of importance (of the two different questionnaires) have subtle underlying theoretical differences. The importance factor of the Body Image and Body Change Inventory is focused on physical appearance.

In contrast, the importance factor of the Appearance Beliefs Scale is oriented to more extensive aspects of appearance (e.g., "To have a nice day, I have to feel good about the way I look/my appearance", "It is much easier to manage my daily tasks when I feel good about the way I look"). For instance, the Appearance Beliefs Questionnaire includes items assessing attractiveness (item 9), schemas (items 5 and 12) and appearance beliefs that include emotional consequences (items 1, 3 and 4) of behaviours. Since it is composed of items that assess not physical aspects of body but one's appearance beliefs, respondents' answers will be related not strictly with their physical body but with what they subjectively value in their physical appearance.

Additionally, the dimension Importance presented weak convergent factor validity; this may be explained by a previously discussed feature (namely, the heterogeneity of items that compose the sub-scale). Nonetheless, since all the other values were within acceptable ranges, the AVE values of importance factor may be accepted. Hence, the Appearance Beliefs Scale is suitable for both middle-aged men and women. This wide-ranging capacity to reach different sexes and ages consists of one of the strengths of this scale.

Some limitations should be accounted for, mainly that the sample was non-probabilistic and collected both online and in paper-and-pencil, representing a discrepancy in sample procedure. One additional limitation refers to a small initial pull of items.

In conclusion, this scale was developed to assess beliefs about appearance in middle-age. The analyses evidenced a first-order hierarchical structure with good psychometric properties. The results showed good reliability (both internal consistency and sensitivity), as well as construct validities. However, considering the study's methodological characteristics and limitations, these results should be interpreted, which do not allow generalization. Therefore, it is necessary to test the Appearance Beliefs Scale again in future studies, exploring its psychometric properties in different samples, including adults from young and late adulthood. Comparisons between these different developmental stages could provide pertinent information about generational differences in appearance-related beliefs.

Contribuição dos autores

Filipa Pimenta: Administração do projeto; Concetualização; Curadoria dos dados; Investigação; Metodologia; Supervisão; Redação do rascunho original; revisão.

Paula Mangia: Curadoria dos dados; Análise formal, Investigação; Metodologia.

Pedro Alexandre Costa: Administração do Projeto; Curadoria dos dados; Análise formal, Investigação; Metodologia.

João Marôco: Curadoria dos dados; Análise formal, Investigação; Metodologia.

Marta Porto: Curadoria dos dados; Análise formal, Investigação; Metodologia.

Isabel Leal: Administração do projeto; Supervisão; Revisão.


This research was funded by the Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia - FCT (2020.05710.BD). Additionally, the WJCR-William James Center for Research is also funded by Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia - FCT (grant UID / PSI / 04810/2019).


American Psychological Association. (2003). Ethical principles of psychologists and code of conduct. Washington. [ Links ]

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). [ Links ]

Andersen, A., Cohn, L., & Holbrook, T. (2000). Making Weight, Men's Conflicts with Food, Weight, Shape & Appearance. Gurze Books. [ Links ]

Andrew, R., Tiggemann, M., & Clark, L. (2014). Positive body image and young women's health: Implications for sun protection, cancer screening, weight loss and alcohol consumption behaviours. Journal of Health Psychology, 21(1), 28-39. [ Links ]

Beck, A.T., Freeman, A., Pretzer, J., Davis, D.D., Fleming, B., Ottaviani, R., Beck, J., Simon, K. M., Padesky, C., Meyer, J., & Trexler, L. (1990). Cognitive Therapy of Personality Disorders. Guilford Press. [ Links ]

Becker, C. B., Verzijl, C. L., Kilpela, L. S., Wilfred, S. A., & Stewart, T. (2017). Body image in adult women: Associations with health behaviours, quality of life, and functional impairment. Journal of Health Psychology. [ Links ]

Bentler, P. M. (1990). Comparative fit indexes in structural models. Psychological bulletin, 107(2), 238. [ Links ]

Bramwell, R., & Morland, C. (2009). Genital appearance satisfaction in women: The development of a questionnaire and exploration of correlates. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology, 27(1), 15-27. [ Links ]

Brown, T. A., Cash, T. F., & Mikulka, P. J. (1990). Attitudinal body-image assessment: Factor analysis of the Body-Self Relations Questionnaire. Journal of Personality Assessment, 55(1-2), 135-144. [ Links ]

Cash, T. F., & Labarge, A. S. (1996). Development of the Appearance Schemas Inventory: A new cognitive body-image assessment. Cognitive therapy and Research, 20(1), 37-50. [ Links ]

Cash, T. F., & Pruzinsky, T. E. (1990). Body images: Development, deviance, and change. Guilford Press. [ Links ]

Cash, T. F., & Pruzinsky, T. E. (2002). Body image: A handbook of theory, research, and clinical practice. Guilford Press. [ Links ]

Cash, T. F., & Pruzinsky, T. (2002). Future challenges for body image theory, research, and clinical practice. In C. Backer & E. Wertheim (Eds.), Body image: A handbook of theory, research, and clinical practice (pp. 509-516). Guilford Press. [ Links ]

Cash, T. F. (1994). Body-image attitudes: Evaluation, investment, and affect. Perceptual and Motor skills, 78(3 suppl), 1168-1170. [ Links ]

Cash, T. F. (1996). Body image and cosmetic surgery: The psychology of physical appearance. The American Journal of Cosmetic Surgery, 13(4), 345-351. [ Links ]

Cash, T. F. (2000). Multidimensional body-self relations questionnaire (MBSRQ). Author. [ Links ]

Cash, T. F. (2002). A "negative body image": Evaluating epidemiological evidence. In C. Backer & E. Wertheim (Eds.), Body image: A handbook of theory, research, and clinical practice, (pp. 269-276). Guildford Press. [ Links ]

Cash, T. F. (2002). Cognitive-behavioral perspectives on body image. In C. Backer & E. Wertheim (Eds.), Body image: A handbook of theory, research, and clinical practice, (pp. 38-46). Guildford Press. [ Links ]

Cash, T. F. (2004). Body image: Past, present, and future. Body image, 1(1), 1-5. [ Links ]

Cash, T. F. (2011). Cognitive-Behavioral Perspectives on Body Image. In Cash, T. F., & Smolak, L. (Eds.), Body image: A handbook of science, practice, and prevention (pp.39-47). Guilford Press. [ Links ]

Cash, T.F. (2012). Cognitive-behavioral perspectives on body image. In T.F Cash (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Body Image and Human Appearance (pp. 334-342). Academic Press Elsevier. [ Links ]

Cash, T. F. , Melnyk, S. E., & Hrabosky, J. I. (2004). The assessment of body image investment: An extensive revision of the Appearance Schemas Inventory. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 35(3), 305-316. [ Links ]

Charles, S. T., Reynolds, C. A., & Gatz, M. (2001). Age-related differences and change in positive and negative affect over 23 years. Journal of personality and social psychology, 80(1), 136. [ Links ]

Cruz-Sáez, S., Pascual, A., Wlodarczyk, A., & Echeburúa, E. (2018). The effect of body dissatisfaction on disordered eating: The mediating role of self-esteem and negative affect in male and female adolescents. Journal of Health Psychology. [ Links ]

da Silva, W.R., Neves, A.N., Marôco Campos, J.A.D.B. (2021). A psychometric evaluation of the body checking and avoidance questionnaire among brazilian adults. Trends in Psychology. [ Links ]

Delinsky, S. S., & Wilson, G. T. (2006). Mirror exposure for the treatment of body image disturbance. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 39(2), 108-116. [ Links ]

Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error: Algebra and statistics. Journal of marketing research, 382-388. [ Links ]

Cafri, G., Roehrig, M., & Thompson, J. K. (2004). Reliability assessment of the somatomorphic matrix. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 35(4), 597-600. [ Links ]

Chin, W. W. (1998). Commentary: Issues and opinion on structural equation modeling. MIS quarterly, vii-xvi. [ Links ]

Gardner, R. M., Jappe, L. M., & Gardner, L. (2009). Development and validation of a new figural drawing scale for body‐image assessment: the BIAS‐BD. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 65(1), 113-122. [ Links ]

Grogan, S. (2011). Body Image Development in Adulthood. In Cash, T. F. , & (Eds.), Body image: A handbook of science, practice, and prevention (pp.93-100). Guilford Press. [ Links ]

Hair, J. F., Black, B., Babin, B., Anderson, R. E., & Tatham, R. L. (2006). Multivariate data analysis. Pearson Prentice Hall. [ Links ]

Hart, T. A., Flora, D. B., Palyo, S. A., Fresco, D. M., Holle, C., & Heimberg, R. G. (2008). Development and examination of the social appearance anxiety scale. Assessment, 15(1), 48-59. [ Links ]

Heinberg, L. J., Thompson, J. K., & Stormer, S. (1995). Development and validation of the sociocultural attitudes towards appearance questionnaire. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 17(1), 81-89. [ Links ]

Herbozo, S., & Thompson, J. K. (2006). Development and validation of the verbal commentary on physical appearance scale: Considering both positive and negative commentary. Body Image, 3(4), 335-344. [ Links ]

Jewett, L. R., Hudson, M., Haythornthwaite, J. A., Heinberg, L., Wigley, F. M., Baron, M., & Thombs, B. D. (2010). Development and validation of the brief‐satisfaction with appearance scale for systemic sclerosis. Arthritis care & research, 62(12), 1779-1786. [ Links ]

Jöreskog, K. G., & Sörbom, D. (1984). LISREL-VI user’s guide. Scientific Software. [ Links ]

Larson, B. K., Clark, T. C., Robinson, E. M., & Utter, J. (2012). Body satisfaction and sexual health behaviors among New Zealand secondary school students. Sex Education, 12(2), 187-198. [ Links ]

Lawrence, J. W., Heinberg, L. J., Roca, R., Munster, A., Spence, R., & Fauerbach, J. A. (1998). Development and validation of the satisfaction with appearance scale: Assessing body image among burn-injured patients. Psychological Assessment, 10(1), 64. [ Links ]

Liechty, T., Freeman, P. A., & Zabriskie, R. B. (2006). Body image and beliefs about appearance: Constraints on the leisure of college-age and middle-aged women. Leisure Sciences, 28(4), 311-330. [ Links ]

Malik, M., Grogan, S., Cole, J., & Gough, B. (2019). Men's reflection on their body image at different life stages: A thematic analysis of interview account from middle-aged men. Journal of Health Psychology, 1-11. [ Links ]

Markus, H., & Smith, J. (1981). The influence of self-schemata on the perception of others. Personality, cognition, and social interaction, 233-262. [ Links ]

Markus, H. (1977). Self-schemata and processing information about the self. Journal of personality and social psychology, 35(2), 63. [ Links ]

Markus, H., Crane, M., Bernstein, S., & Siladi, M. (1982). Self-schemas and gender. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 42(1), 38. [ Links ]

Mayville, S. B., Williamson, D. A., White, M. A., Netemeyer, R. G., & Drab, D. L. (2002). Development of the Muscle Appearance Satisfaction Scale: A Self-Report Measure for the Assessment of Muscle Dysmorphia Symptoms. Assessment, 9(4), 351-360. [ Links ]

McCabe, M. P., & Ricciardelli, L. A. (2001). Parent, peer, and media influences on body image and strategies to both increase and decrease body size among adolescent boys and girls. Adolescence, 36(142), 225. [ Links ]

McCabe, M. P., Ricciardelli, L. A., & Finemore, J. (2002). The role of puberty, media and popularity with peers on strategies to increase weight, decrease weight and increase muscle tone among adolescent boys and girls. Journal of psychosomatic research, 52(3), 145-153. [ Links ]

McCreary, D. R., Sasse, D. K., Saucier, D. M., & Dorsch, K. D. (2004). Measuring the Drive for Muscularity: Factorial Validity of the Drive for Muscularity Scale in Men and Women. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 5(1), 49. [ Links ]

Murnen, S. (2011). Gender and Body Image. In Cash, T. F., & Smolak, L. (Eds.), Body image: A handbook of science, practice, and prevention (93-100). Guilford Press. [ Links ]

Ordem dos Psicólogos Portugueses. (2011). Código Deontológico. OPP. [ Links ]

Parent, M. C., Schwartz, E. N., & Bradstreet, T. C. (2016). Men's body image. In Y. J. Wong, S. R. Wester, Y. J. (Ed) Wong, & S. R. (Ed) Wester (Eds.), APA handbook of men and masculinities. (pp. 591-614). American Psychological Association. [ Links ]

Reed, D. L., Thompson, J. K., Brannick, M. T., & Sacco, W. P. (1991). Development and validation of the physical appearance state and trait anxiety scale (PASTAS). Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 5(4), 323-332. [ Links ]

Ricciardelli, L. A., & McCabe, M. P. (2002). Psychometric evaluation of the Body Change Inventory: An assessment instrument for adolescent boys and girls. Eating behaviors, 3(1), 45-59. [ Links ]

Spangler, D. L., & Stice, E. (2001). Validation of the beliefs about appearance scale. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 25(6), 813-827. [ Links ]

Stanford, J. N., & McCabe, M. P. (2005). Sociocultural influences on adolescent boys' body image and body change strategies. Body Image, 2(2), 105-113. [ Links ]

Steiger, J. H. (1998). A note on multiple sample extensions of the RMSEA fit index. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 5(4), 411-419. [ Links ]

Stevens, C., & Tiggemann, M. (1998). Women's body figure preferences across the life span. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 159(1), 94-102. [ Links ]

Stevens, S. D., Herbozo, S., Morrell, H. E., Schaefer, L. M., & Thompson, J. K. (2016). Adult and childhood weight influence body image and depression through weight stigmatisation. Journal of Health Psychology, 22(8), 1084-1093. [ Links ]

Thelen, M. H., & Cormier, J. F. (1996). Desire to be thinner and weight control among children and their parents. Behavior Therapy, 26(1), 85-99. [ Links ]

Thompson, J. K., Coovert, M. D., Richards, K. J., Johnson, S., & Cattarin, J. (1995). Development of body image, eating disturbance, and general psychological functioning in female adolescents: Covariance structure modeling and longitudinal investigations. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 18(3), 221-236. [ Links ]

Thompson, J. K., Fabian, L. J., Moulton, D. O., Dunn, M. E., & Altabe, M. N. (1991). Development and validation of the physical appearance related teasing scale. Journal of personality assessment, 56(3), 513-521. [ Links ]

Thompson, J. K., Heinberg, L. J., Altabe, M., & Tantleff-Dunn, S. (1999). Exacting beauty: Theory, assessment, and treatment of body image disturbance. American Psychological Association. [ Links ]

Tiggermann, M., & McCourt, A. (2013). Body appreciation in adult women: Relationships with age and body satisfaction. Body image, 10(4), 624-627 [ Links ]

Tiggemann, M. (2002). Media influences on body image development. In C. Backer & E. Wertheim (Eds.), Body image: A handbook of theory, research, and clinical practice, (pp. 91-98). Guildford Press. [ Links ]

Tiggemann, M., Martins, Y., & Churchett, L. (2008). Beyond muscles unexplored parts of men's body image. Journal of Health Psychology, 13(8), 1163-1172. [ Links ]

Tylka, T. L., & Wood-Barcalow, N. L. (2015). What is and what is not positive body image? Conceptual foundations and construct definition. Body image, 14, 118-129. [ Links ]

Untas, A., Koleck, M., Rascle, N., & Borteyrou, X. (2009). Psychometric properties of the French adaptation of the Multidimensional Body Self Relations Questionnaire-Appearance Scales. Psychological reports, 105(2), 461-471. [ Links ]

Vartanian, L. R., Giant, C. L., & Passino, R. M. (2001). "Ally McBeal vs. Arnold Schwarzenegger": Comparing mass media, interpersonal feedback and gender as predictors of satisfaction with body thinness and muscularity. Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, 29(7), 711-723. [ Links ]

Yang, H., & Stoeber, J. (2012). The physical appearance perfectionism scale: development and preliminary validation. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 34(1), 69-83 [ Links ]

Wager, E. & Kleinert, S. (2011). Responsible research publication: international standards for authors. A position statement developed at the 2nd World Conference on Research Integrity. In T. Mayer & N. Stenecks (Eds.), Promoting Research Integrity in a Global Environment (pp. 309-16). Imperial College Press. [ Links ]

Received: August 08, 2022; Accepted: December 20, 2022

Morada de Correspondência: Rua Jardim do Tabaco, 34, 1149-041 Lisboa, Portugal

Creative Commons License This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License